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Embedded Systems Training Services Overview

Avyakta Technologies provides trainings/workshops/guidance (onsite/offsite) with hands on in the areas of embedded systems for communications and networking. The trainings/workshops could be as Continuing Educational Programs for Professionals, Guest lectures/Workshops for students and faculty, Internship/Projects for BE/Btech and ME/MTech students.

FPGA Based Design Training

Designers of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) need to understand the fundamentals of VLSI in order to make effective use of their FPGAs. The architecture of FPGAs is largely determined by VLSI constraints: Logic Element structures, interconnection networks, configuration, pinout etc. Understanding them would help the designer achieve the targeted performance with ease. The course includes Introduction to FPGA design principles with working examples and hands on training on usage of development tools.

ARM Controller Training

ARM is a 32-bit Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by ARM Holdings. It was known as the Advanced RISC Machine. The relative simplicity of ARM processors makes them suitable for low power applications. As a result, they have become dominant in the mobile and embedded electronics market, as relatively low-cost, small microprocessors and microcontrollers. In 2005, about 98% of the more than one billion mobile phones sold each year used at least one ARM processor. As of 2009, ARM processors account for approximately 90% of all embedded 32-bit RISC processors and are used extensively in consumer electronics, including PDAs, mobile phones, digital media and music players, hand-held game consoles, calculators and computer peripherals. Prominent ARM processor families developed by ARM Holdings include the ARM7, ARM9, ARM11 and Cortex.

Real Time Operating System

A Real Time Operating System (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time application requests. A key characteristic of a RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. A RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS.

Embedded System Design

Embedded computing systems are found everywhere, including in cellular telephones, pagers, VCRs, camcorders, thermostats, curbside rental-car check-in devices, automated supermarket stockers, computerized inventory control devices, digital thermometers, telephone answering machines, printers, portable video games, TV set-top boxes etc. Demand for embedded system designers is large, and is growing rapidly. Embedded system sesign using an unified Hardware/Software approach is essential for the successful development of an embedded product.

Wireless Networks

The wireless communication revolution is bringing fundamental changes to data networking, telecommunication, and is making integrated networks a reality. By freeing the user from the cord, personal communications networks, wireless LAN's, mobile radio networks and cellular systems, harbor the promise of fully distributed mobile computing and communications, any time, anywhere. The area of wireless communications is extremely challenging due to the difficulties posed by the wireless medium and the increasing demand for better and cheaper services.

Internet Protocols

The most widely used local-area network (LAN) access method, defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), is the 802.3 standard. These ports enable you not just to create a small home network but to connect to the Internet via a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable modem, which requires an Ethernet connection. A 10/100 port means that the network interface supports both 10BASE-T at 10 megabits per second (Mbps) and 100BASE-T at 100 Mbps. Ethernet is often a shared-media LAN, which means that all stations on the segment use part of the total bandwidth. Depending on the type of Ethernet implemented, this total bandwidth is a 10 Mbps (Ethernet), 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet), or 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet). In a shared Ethernet environment, each device has to contend for network bandwidth using the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) mechanism. In a switched Ethernet environment, each sender and receiver pair has the full bandwidth available for use.
Ethernet LANs use the Media Access Control, or MAC, address to determine how traffic is moved between network segments. Ethernet hubs, defined by the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model physical layer (Layer 1), repeat only the physical signal; the hub does not look at a source or destination address. Ethernet bridges and switches use the source and destination MAC address, defined by the OSI data link layer (Layer 2) to build an interface table and to determine which segment should receive the frame. Routers use the network address, found at the OSI network layer (Layer 3) to build a routing table. The Layer 2 and Layer 3 operations and the Ethernet hardware fit into an Ethernet LAN environment.

Cognitive Radio Networks

Cognitive Radio (CR) is a form of wireless communication device in which a transceiver can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use and which are not, and instantly move into vacant channels while avoiding occupied ones. This optimizes the use of available radio-frequency (RF) spectrum while minimizing interference to other users. CRs, in general are built around Software Defined Radios (SDRs). Possible functions of cognitive radio include the ability of a transceiver to determine its geographic location, identify and authorize its user, encrypt or decrypt signals, sense neighboring wireless devices in operation, and adjust output power and modulation characteristics. There are two main types of cognitive radio, full cognitive radio and spectrum-sensing cognitive radio. Full cognitive radio takes into account all parameters that a wireless node or network can be aware of. In spectrum-sensing cognitive radio the vacant channels in the radio frequency spectrum are detected and utilized.